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There are many studies that show the associations between risk factors and HIV infection.These risk factors are: low education level, not living with parents/wife, low economic status, HIV misconception, low perceived risk of HIV, smoking, substance use, risk taking behaviors (e.g.Results: From univariate analysis, the significant risk factors were: urban housing area (OR=1.61); labor occupation (OR=1.70); income of more than 2000 Baht/month (OR=1.74); early secondary level of education and lower (OR=2.71); smoking (OR=2.46); alcohol use (OR=1.61); marijuana use (OR=4.57); amphetamine use (OR=3.44); heroin use (OR=9.32); alcohol use before sex (OR=1.74); drug use before sex (OR=3.76); IDU (OR=6.02); needle sharing (OR=5.80); first sex with female sex workers (FSWs) (OR=3.52); having more than 3 lifetime sex partners (OR=2.14); history of anal sex (OR=2.25); history of STDs (OR=2.80); HIV risk perception (OR=1.61); high speed driving preference (OR=2.73); unability of safe sex talk with partners (OR=1.78); unworrying about HIV (OR=2.28).From multiple logistic regression analysis, the variables found to be predictive of HIV positivity were: income of more than 2000 Baht/month (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.13, 3.31); heroin use (OR=4.18, 95% CI=1.03, 16.89); drug use before sex (OR=2.20, 95 % CI=1.13, 4.29); first sex with FSWs (OR=3.47, 95 % CI=1.69, 7.13); HIV risk perception (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.07, 3.25); unworrying about HIV (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.16, 3.07).The association between risk factors and HIV serostatus was determined by using case control studies. It is composed of demographic factors (7 items), addictive behaviors (8 items), sexual behaviors (8 items), HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude (8 items), condom knowledge, attitude and practice (4 items) and psychosocial factors (18 items).
Perhaps the most difficult area of HIV prevention lies in the area of behavior change.
Biomedical based behavioral research has concentrated on special risk groups.
From a behavioral public health perspective, those less researched and understood are the residual categories of people potentially “at risk” and young men are among them.
Primary prevention through education which can result in decreased risk-taking behaviors, especially changes in sexual behavior and condoms use which can reduce HIV seroprevalence in high-risk populations, are the most effective methods of avoiding HIV .
It was recognized that HIV transmission was associated with multiple risk factors.