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British forces liberated Ethiopia from the Italian colonizers and took control of Eritrea in 1941.
Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952, when the United Nations (UN) federated Eritrea with Ethiopia.
Many of the lowland groups, however, lead semi-nomadic pastoral or agro pastoral lives.
The Eritrean capital, Asmara, is located in the highland plateau, the home region of the biggest ethnic group, the Tigrinya. The population in Eritrea is approximately three to three-and-a-half million (1994), divided between nine ethnic groups.
Ethiopia was subsequently constructed on the legacy of Axum.
The Italian colonization of Eritrea in 1890 marked the first time that Eritrean territory was ruled as a single entity.
The Axumite empire, which emerges into the light of history in the first century , comprised the Akkele-Guzai region of highland Eritrea and the Agame region of Tigray, Ethiopia.
The empire expanded and its port city of Adulis, south of present-day Massawa, became an important trading post hosting ships from Egypt, Greece, the Arab world, and other far-off areas.
He thus established Christianity as the religion of the court and state, making the Ethiopian/Eritrean Christian Church one of the oldest in the world.The topographical variety has affected the social organization and mode of production of the country's nine ethnic groups.In the highland plateau, people live in small villages conducting subsistence plow-agriculture.It appears, however, that Tigrinya is taking over as the dominant language, since the majority of the population are Tigrinya-speakers, the biggest towns are located in the highlands, and most people in government and the state bureaucracy are from the Tigrinya ethnic group. Since Eritreans fought a thirty-year-long war of liberation (1961–1991) to achieve independence from Ethiopian domination, the national culture endorsed by the government invokes symbols of war and sacrifice.The three main national holidays all commemorate the war of liberation: 24 May, Liberation Day; 20 June, Martyr's Day; and 1 September, a holiday that commemorates the start of the liberation war.