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The city had long been associated with glass processing and glass beads, but the excavations recovered almost 13,000 glass beads and several pounds of glassworking debris.

The beads here have a unique chemical makeup, of contrasting levels of soda and potassium and high levels of alumina.

In two areas, the Yoruba region in the southwest and the Hausa-Fulani and Kanuri areas of the north, there were numbers of cities with historical roots stretching back considerably before the advent of British colonizers, giving them distinctive physical and cultural identities.

Moreover, in areas such as the Igbo region in the southeast, which had few urban centers before the colonial period and was not highly urbanized even at independence, there has been a massive growth of newer cities since the 1970s, so that these areas in 1990 were also highly urban.

The activities of European traders also attracted people to such coastal cities as Lagos, Badagri, Brass, and Bonny, and later Calabar and Port Harcourt.

Overlying the original features of the earlier cities were those generated by colonial and postcolonial rule, which created new urban centers while also drastically altering the older ones.

They attracted large numbers of traders and migrants from their own hinterlands and generally also included "stranger quarters" for migrants of other regions and nations.

In the south, the rise of the Yoruba expansionist city-states and of Benin and others was stimulated by trade to the coast, and by competition among these growing urban centers for the control of their hinterlands and of the trade from the interior to the Atlantic (including the slave trade).

The royal center had a circumference of about 2.5 miles, and its inner-most wall encircles an area of some three square miles.Bead-making manufacturing is indicated by pounds of glass waste and cullet, 14,000 potsherds. The vitrified ceramic crucibles are between 6 and 13 inches tall, with a mouth diameter of between 3–4 inches, which would have held between 5-40 pounds of molten glass.The production site was used between the 11th and 15th centuries and represents rare evidence of early West African crafts.Cities are not only independent centers of concentrated human population and activity; they also exert a potent influence on the rural landscape.What is distinctive about the growth of cities in Nigeria is the length of its historical extension and the geographic pervasiveness of its coverage.

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